About This Journal

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Journal of Autonomous Intelligence (eISSN: 2630-5046) is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal that publishes original research and review articles covering all aspects of autonomous intelligence with emphasis on artificial intelligence and robotic self-learning. The Journal seeks to disseminate findings in the domain of autonomous intelligence by featuring the latest advancements in the field and state-of-the-art theories, techniques and implementations. It is aimed at bringing the scientific discourse and discoveries to a wide international audience by being a platform for scientists, engineers, researchers and academicians to share, discuss and advocate new issues and developments in the diverse spheres of autonomous intelligence.

The scope of the Journal includes promoting the relation between power and information fluxes in systems with corresponding organization, which is the extraordinary and certainly long ranging adventure at the forefront of theoretical and applied engineering science toward system autonomy.

The Journal covers articles, reviews, opinions and lectures significantly contributing to the advance of understanding the phenomenon of autonomous intelligence.


Journal Abbreviation:J. Autonom. Intell.

Focus and Scope

The topics of interest for submission include, but are not limited to:

1.Artificial Intelligence

  • Basic Theory and Application of Artificial Intelligence
  • Artificial Intelligence Tools & Applications
  • Artificial Neural Networks
  • Neural Network and Deep Learning
  • Machine Learning
  • Big Data Analysis and Processing
  • Reasoning and Evolution
  • Cognitive Science
  • Knowledge Science and Knowledge Engineering
  • Knowledge Representation; Knowledge-Based Systems
  • Natural Language Processing and Understanding
  • Natural Computing  & Evolutionary Calculation

2.Robotics Science and Engineering

  • Modeling and Identification
  • Robot Control
  • Mobile Robotics
  • Tele-Robotics
  • Machine Perception and Virtual Reality
  • Robot Sensing and Data Fusion
  • Localization, Navigation and Mapping
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Multiagent Systems
  • Swarm Intelligence

3.Other Related Topics

  • Computer Vision and Image Processing
  • Feature Extraction, Grouping and Segmentation
  • Intelligent Control
  • Pattern Recognition Theory and Application
  • Intelligent System Architectures; Intelligent Web
  • Information Retrieval and Web Search
  • Intelligent Transportation
  • Intelligent Planning and Scheduling
  • Biometric Identification
  • Bioinformatics and Artificial Life
  • Non-classical Computing and Novel Computing Models
  • Pervasive Computing and Ambient Intelligence
  • Rough Set and Soft Computing

For Authors

  • Authors should read the “Author Guidelines” before making a submission, and make sure that the manuscripts were written in accordance to the style and specifications of the journal’s policy.

    All manuscripts submitted to Journal of Autonomous Intelligence are subject to rigorous peer review. Prior to the peer review process, the manuscripts will be screened for acceptable English language, novelty and relevance to the Focus and Scope of the journal.

    Any manuscripts submitted to Journal of Autonomous Intelligence will be treated as confidential materials. The manuscripts will not be disclosed to anyone except individuals such as editorial staff, reviewers and editors who participate in the initial screening, review, processing and preparation of the manuscript for publication (if accepted).

    A manuscript would not be considered if it has been published or is currently under consideration for publication in any other journals. In the cover letter, authors must state that neither the manuscript nor any significant part of it is under consideration for publication elsewhere or has appeared elsewhere in a manner that could be construed as a prior or duplication of the same work. The authors are required to notify the editorial team if the findings and data in their submissions have been presented in conferences.

  • Frontier Scientific Publishing (FSP) follows the following practices, guidelines and standards for its journals:

    ICMJE: Medically related FSP journals follow the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The guidelines comprehensively cover all aspects of editing, from how the journal is managed to details about peer review and handling complaints. The majority of the recommendations are not specific to medical journals and are followed by all Frontier Scientific Publishing journals.

    The Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing developed by Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME).

    TOP covers transparency and openness in the reporting of research. Our journals aim to be at level 1 or 2 for all aspects of TOP. Specific requirements vary between journals and can be requested from the editorial office.

    PRISMA covers systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors are recommended to complete the checklist and flow diagram and include it with their submission.

    ARRIVE contains guidelines for reporting in vivo experiments. Authors are recommended to verify their work against the checklist and include it with their submission.

    Compliance with the standards and guidelines above will be taken into account during the final decision and any discrepancies should be clearly explained by the authors. We recommend that authors highlight relevant guidelines in their cover letter.

    COPE has defined measures against data fabrication, duplicate publication, plagiarism and retraction, etc. All complaints submitted by the authors to the journal will be addressed promptly according to the procedure set out in the COPE complaints and appeals. The complainant may direct all inquiries and correspondence to the publisher at

  • The publication frequency of Journal of Autonomous Intelligence is bimonthly.

  • JAI strictly follow the Ethical Oversight policy of COPE, and supervise and encourage the implementation of best academic practice. We will make every effort to find out and put an end to unethical behaviors such as plagiarism, multiple submissions, data fraud, etc., and ensure the fairness and credibility of scientific research. 

    Authors should submit the Informed Consent Statement if the research involving people while the submitting section, e.g. “The Informed Consent has been obtained from all the subjects involved in this study”. Human subjects have a right of privacy that should not be violated without informed consent. Any research involving people without the Informed Consent Statement, JAI will reserve the right to reject the manuscript. If subjects are the vulnerable populations, please obtain the oral or written Informed Consent from their parent or guardian. Necessary efforts should be made by the authors to conceal any identifying information of the subjects.

    For studies that involve testing on animals, it is the best that authors should identify the committee or organization (e.g. author’s Institutional Ethics Review Board) during the submitting section of the manuscript, and it should detail ethics approval information such as the name of the granting committee or organization and the approval identifiers, i.e. reference numbers. If without any ethics approval information, please explain the reason to the editor.

    Publisher will ensure that the research published is only for academic exchange in the journal. The collected information is privacy, and only for the used exclusively for the stated purpose of the journal. It will not be available for any other purpose such as any marketing practices.

  • 1. What is Special Issue?

    A Special issue is a collection of papers collected by experts in a certain field as Guest Editors, and it is not a regular issue of the journal. The Guest Editors are responsible for the proposal of the Special Issue and its scope. Papers in a Special Issue are complied into a regular volume/issue.

    Benefits of publishing a Special Issue

    • Articles published in a Special Issue could have more citations than a regular issue since they study the same or similar interests, which could wider the impact of the special topic and maximize the community engagement.
    • A special issue may promote the exchange of the experts and research results in the same filed more conveniently.
    • Readership of the Special Issue may be enhanced through advertising efforts of Guest Editors and authors, which could further expand the impact of Guest Editors or the Special Issue.

    2. Special Issue Proposal

    Usually, the Editorial Office will invite the experts of the special scientific fields to be Guest Editors. Guest Editors will submit a topic proposal for the Special Issue. JAI also welcomes proposals from authors and readers on a topic within their field of subjects. Please find the Apply for special issue for a new proposal.

    A Special Issue Proposal should include:

    Title of Special Issue: Please summarize a title to reflect the subject of the Special Issue.

    Guest editors: Please list all the Guest Editors’ information including name, affiliation, country, interests, email. Guest Editors make up a group to co-edit the Special Issue, among which there is a leader.

    Summary: The guest editor needs to provide a summary of Special Issue including the introduction, main topics, type of submissions, and keywords. It briefly describes the aim and themes of the Special Issue.

    Collecting plan: Guest Editors should provide a list of contributors.


    3. Guideline of Special Issue

    Special Issue Ethics:

    JAI abides by the Code of Conduct of COPE and its Best Practice Guidelines. All Guest Editors and Assistant Editors need to protect the confidentiality of all submissions and reviewers. Guest Editors and reviewers must strictly abide by the policy of Conflict of Interest in the journal; if there is any potential conflict of interest, please take the initiative to inform the Editorial Office so as to evaluate whether it needs to change reviewers or editors. Authors should declare any potential conflict of interest to the publisher during the submitting section, and abide by the Ethical oversight of JAI . JAI firmly rejects all unethical behaviors and requires all submissions to comply with JAI’s Editorial Policies. Any Guest Editor or reviewer should not ask authors to include their own papers for more citations if they are not relevant.

    Special Issue Workflow:

    New submissions should be submitted through the journal system. Guest Editors will check the content relevance to the scope of this Special Issue. Then, Assistant Editors will verify the originality of the submission with iThenticate. For the fairness and rigor of academic achievements, any manuscript unsuitable for originality will be rejected.

    Guest Editors have the responsibility to oversight all the peer-reviewed process. They will assign new submissions to at least two reviewers for peer review. Submissions from Guest Editors should not be reviewed by this Guest Editor or experts from his/her affiliation. All the recommend decisions will be collected to Guest Editors, and they will make the final decisions and notify the authors.

    If there are no enough papers submitted, Guest Editors may take actions for more submissions such as extending the submission deadline. However, the times of extending deadline is best to be not more than twice.

    All accepted manuscripts will move to production, and they will be both on the list of a regular issue and Special Issue.

  • Duplicate Submission

    Manuscripts submitted to FSP’s journals should:

    1) not have been published before;

    2) not concurrently be submitted elsewhere.

    If part of a manuscript has been published or will be published elsewhere, the authors must let the editors know in a cover letter. If duplicate submission is detected during peer review, the manuscript may be rejected. If it is detected after publication, the manuscript may be retracted.


    FSP does not approve of plagiarism. Plagiarism detection software is used to verify the originality of submitted manuscripts. If a manuscript uses a text copied directly from another source, this text must be written in quotation marks and the original source must be cited. If any kind of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, plagiarism of others' results, falsification of data, fabrication of data, is detected during the review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If it is detected after publication, the manuscript may be retracted.

    Data falsification/fabrication

    Neither the Publisher’s policies nor the statements of its editors should encourage data fabrication and falsification. In support of reproducibility, FSP supports initiatives such as clinical trial registration and the use of standardized reporting guidelines to ensure that studies can be replicated. Institutions should be notified if there are suspicions of misconduct by their researchers and evidence should be provided to support these concerns. Institutions should inform the Journal the proven cases of misconduct that affect the reliability or attribution of work published by the Journal. The Journal will be prepared to publish retractions or corrections (in accordance with COPE retraction guidelines) upon receipt of investigated findings of misconduct.

  • Authorship should be limited to people who have contributed substantially to the work. The corresponding author must have obtained permission from all the authors mentioned in the manuscript. The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring adherence to all editorial and submission policies and for any communications and actions that may be necessary after publication. A maximum of two corresponding authors are allowed for the associated responsibilities. The corresponding author must include written permission from the authors of the work concerned for any mention of any unpublished material included in the manuscript, for example, data from manuscripts-in-press, personal communication, or work in preparation.

    In order to be listed as an author for a paper, one should have contributed sufficiently in the project. A co-author is expected to have contributed to some component of the work which led to the paper, or be involved in interpretation of its results. All authors should have a say in the final approval of the version to be published, in addition to reviewing the final manuscript prior to submission.

    Individuals who do not meet the above requirements, but have provided a valuable contribution to the work, may be acknowledged for their contribution as appropriate to the publication.

    Changes to Authorship

    Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript is accepted for publication. The corresponding author should provide the reasons for the change in authorship list and the proof of written confirmation from all authors (including the existing authors, author(s) to be added and/or removed) agreeing with such change, to the Editorial Office.

    The requests for authorship changes need to be approved by the Editorial Office before any changes can be made.

  • The authors must declare any conflict of interest with any financial body or funding agency or anything else that might influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All authors, members, reviewers and editors must disclose any association that poses a conflict of interest in connection with the manuscript. A declaration of interests for all authors must be received before an article can be reviewed and accepted for publication.

    For authors:

    While submitting, authors must list all competing interests relevant to this work, including but not limited to:

    • Funding sources
    • The role of sponsors in the work design, data collection, and results of the analysis.
    • Whether the author is serving on the editorial board of this journal submitting to.


    For editors and reviewers:

    Editors and reviewers must declare any possible conflict of interests in connection with the manuscript, and if necessary, they must avoid the peer review process. When Editorial Board Members publish articles in the served journal, the editorial office will actively emphasize it so that the authors know that they recuse the potential peer review process.

    Common reasons for editors and reviewers to be replaced include but are not limited to:

    • The editor or reviewer works at the same organization as one of the authors.
    • The editor or reviewer is one of the authors of this work.
    • The editor or reviewer is on the avoidance list from the author(s).
    • The editor or reviewer has a financial relationship or personal relationship with an author.
  • Correction

    The Frontier Scientific Publishing values the integrity of academic activities and the completeness of academic achievement records, ensuring that academic papers are kept as recordable and unchanging as they are published. However, it is difficult to find out the individual non-normative phenomena in the manuscript or the inattention of the author, even if carefully reviewed by the editor. Therefore, correcting academic records is sometimes necessary. The decision to change the record is of great importance, and the publisher will take different measures based on the article's situation, roughly in the following forms:
    1. Expression problem
    2. Correction (error in the layout or error in the content)
    3. Cancellation
    4. Remove
    All of the above measures are aimed at correcting the article and reminding the reader, but not punishing the author. 

    The possible correction includes erratum or corrigendum.


    An erratum relates a correction of errors caused by the publisher. Ideally, all articles need to be checked for all possible errors by the authors during the final proofreading stage before they are finally published online, but minor errors are unavoidable. If the author/reader finds any errors online, please contact


    Corrections are errors that are caused by the author. Authors discovering such errors should contact the journal editor, who will assess the likely impact of the change and decide on the appropriate course of action, as appropriate. JAI will make corrections to published articles only after receiving approval and instructions from the editor.

    If you decide to withdraw your manuscript after it has been accepted (but not yet published), a processing fee of USD 200 is chargeable upon withdrawal.

    If the measures taken (such as retraction) are not initiated by the author, or only the unilateral action of the author before the both sides reached an agreement, the publisher does not need to compensate the author for economic losses, and the article processing charge will not be returned to the author.

    A retraction is a request to withdraw an article that has already been published. It is important to note that retractions are only initiated for articles with evidence of potential academic misconduct, and once a retraction has been initiated, the article page will not disappear and the word "retracted" will be marked, and all authors of the article and their institutions will be notified of the retraction.

    For intentional or unintentional irregularities in articles published in the journals, the editors of the journals have the responsibility of supervising the review, and the process of which should involve the authors and reviewers. The editor will follow the publisher's retraction guidelines and other acceptable academic principles (eg. COPE's retraction guidelines) to select the best solution to the problem.

  • Authors contributing to this journal agree to publish their articles under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, allowing third parties to share their work (copy, distribute, transmit) and to adapt it, under the condition that the authors are given credit, that the work is not used for commercial purposes, and that in the event of reuse or distribution, the terms of this license are made clear. With this license, the authors hold the copyright without restrictions and are allowed to retain publishing rights without restrictions as long as this journal is the original publisher of the articles.

  • Authors are permitted to post their non-peer-reviewed original research manuscripts to preprint servers before submitting to Journal of Autonomous Intelligence

    Authors are not allowed to post any versions of articles that have been revised as a result of peer review, accepted for publication or published in the journal on a preprint server. The manuscript whose corresponding preprint version has been indexed (e.g. in MEDLINE or PubMed) will not be considered.

    We encourage formal citation of preprints in the reference list if appropriate.

  • All advertisements are subject to approval to the Publisher. Advertisements must comply with the relevant regulations in the country where the advertisements appear. Please contact:
    • For authors: Once submitting a manuscript, it means that you have been aware of all publishing policies & ethics,  and will strictly abide by them.
    • For reviewers: Once accepting the request to become a reviewer, it means that you must be aware of the peer review policies, and proactively disclose of all potential conflicts of interest, and guarantee that an article will be judged fairly and objectively. 
    • For publisher: This journal  is not liable to the statements, perspectives, and opinions contained in the published articles. The appearance of advertisements in the journal shall not be construed as a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised and/or the safety thereof. This journal and the Publisher disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas or products referred to in the articles or advertisements.
  • The Article Processing Charges (APCs) are meant to support the journal’s associated expenses. The publication fee for each manuscript accepted for publication is USD 1500.

    Waiver Policy

    For high-quality articles graded by our editorial board members and authors from low-income countries with difficulty to pay the APCs, FSP will access in a case-by-case basis and may approve certain discount to ensure the publication. FSP reserves the rights to approve or decline any such request. Please contact: Publishing fees or waiver status should not influence editorial decision making.


    Ways of Payment and Instructions

    JAI currently supports the following payment methods:

    1. Online Payment by PayPal:

    The payee e-mail address is We accept USD paid by Credit Card through PayPal.

    2. Online Payment through payment link:
  • The manuscripts submitted to Journal of Autonomous Intelligence should be written in English. Authors whose first language is not English may have their manuscripts professionally edited before the final submission, and ensure the academic paper could be fully understood by its prospective readers.

  • JAI is indexed, cataloged and/or included by several world-class abstracting/indexing databases:



    Google Scholar




    • All the articles published online will be archived by Portico for long-term digital preservation.
    • Authors are encouraged to self-archive the final version of their published articles into institutional repositories (such as those listed in the Directory of Open Access Repositories).
    • Authors are also encouraged to use the final PDF version published on the website of Frontier Scientific Publisher.
  • If the subjects were humans or animals, authors should detail ethics approval information such as the name of the granting committee or organization and the approval identifiers, i.e. reference numbers. In the case that ethics approval identifiers are not available, written approval from the granting committee or organization must be provided as confidential supplemental file during submission stage.


    The manuscript should confirm that the experiments were carried out in adherence to the ethical principles set out in the WMA Declaration of Helsinki and CARE guidelines, meanwhile, the informed consent was obtained from all human subjects. Experiments on non-human primates should be performed in accordance with the recommendations set out in the Weatherall report (The Use of Non-Human Primates in Research). Authors are encouraged to follow the ARRIVE guidelines while reporting animal research. Please look for and refer to the appropriate reporting standards as found on EQUATOR Network, which have been adopted by the field of the works or which apply to their study design.


    For human subjects, the informed consent should be obtained from the participants (i.e., oral or written). The authors should inform the participants of the purpose(s) of publication, the possible risks and benefits as a result of the experiment, and the patient's right to withhold or withdraw consent. Consent should be obtained from the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) if the subjects are the participation of vulnerable populations.

  • The human subject’s right to privacy shall not be violated without informed consent. Subject identifying information, including patient name, initials, date of birth, contact information, photographs, fingerprints, and other identifying information, may not be published in an article except for scientifically necessary purposes and when the subject (or his or her guardian) is aware of the implications of publication. Authors must endeavor to conceal any patient identifying information that appears in writing or photographs.


    If it is not possible to completely avoid revealing the patient's identity, the author is obligated to explain this to the patient and obtain his or her consent to use this information in the publication. If the patient is deceased, the consent of the next of kin or legal guardian should be obtained. Submissions containing patient-identifying information will not be considered for publication without the patient’s consent.


    Please refer to the ICMJE Privacy and Confidentiality Guidelines for more information on patient anonymity and privacy.

  • Kindly check that your manuscript has been prepared in accordance to the step-by-step instructions provided before submitted to our online submission system. This guide is prepared specifically for people who edit the manuscripts that will be published by Frontier Scientific Publishing since 2023 Vol.6 No.2You are advised to download the document,  Manuscript Submission Template,as a template for more details on preparing your submissions to Journal of Autonomous Intelligence for consideration. 

    Manuscript Format

    Your manuscript should be in MS Word format. All manuscripts must be written in clear, comprehensible English. Both British and American English are accepted. Usage of non-English words should be kept to a minimum and all must be italicized with the exception of "e.g.", "i.e." and "etc." If you have concerns about the level of English in your submission, please ensure that it is proofread before submission by a native English speaker or a scientific editing service. Please chose suitable article type according to Section Policy.

    Cover Letter

    All submissions should include a cover letter as a separate file. A cover letter should contain a brief explanation of what was previously known, the conceptual advancement with the findings and its significance to a broad readership. The cover letter is confidential and will be read only by the editors. It will not be seen by reviewers.


    The title should capture the conceptual significance for a broad audience. The title should not be more than 50 words and should be able to give readers an overall view of the paper's significance. Titles should avoid using uncommon jargons, abbreviations and punctuation.

    List of Authors

    The names of authors must be spelled out rather than set in initials along with their affiliations. Authors should be listed according to the extent of their contribution, with the major contributor listed first. All corresponding authors should be identified with an asterisk. Affiliations should contain the following core information: department, institution, city, country. For contact purposes, email address of at least one corresponding author must be included. Please note that all authors must see and approve the final version of the manuscript before submitting. Please confirm the authorship according to Authorship Policy.


    Articles must include an abstract containing a maximum of 300 words. The purpose of the abstract is to provide sufficient information for a reader to determine whether to proceed to the full text of the article. After the abstract, please provide 3-8 key words, avoiding the same words already used in the title.


    The text of the manuscript should be in Microsoft Word. Research article should include the Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion (optional). The length of the manuscript should be a minimum word count of 4,000 words.

    Section Headings

    Headings are used to indicate the hierarchy of sections of text. No more than four levels of displayed headings are employed. Please number the section headings (e.g. 1., 2., 3., 4.) in boldface. Likewise, use boldface to identify subheadings too, but please distinguish it from major headings using numbers (e.g. 1.1., 1.2., 2.1., 2.2.) Further subsections of subheadings should be differentiated with the numbers 1.1.1., 1.1.2., 2.1.1., 2.1.2., etc.


    The introduction should provide a background that gives the broad readership an overall outlook of the field and the research performed. It pinpoints a problem and states its importance regarding the significance of the study. The introduction can conclude with a brief statement of the aim of the work and a comment about whether that aim was achieved.

    Materials and Methods

    This section provides the general experimental design and methodologies used. The aim is to provide enough details for other investigators to fully replicate your results. It is also required to facilitate better understanding of the results obtained. Protocols and procedures for new methods must be included in detail to reproduce the experiments.


    This section can be divided into subheadings. This section focuses on the results of the experiments performed.


    This section should provide the significance of the results and identify the impact of the research in a broader context. It should not be redundant or similar to the content of the results section.

    Conclusion (Optional)

    Please use the conclusion section for interpretation only, and not to summarize information already presented in the text or abstract.

    The sequence of back matter elements in an article is listed below. There is no numeral label for back matter headings. Some is optional.

    Supplementary materials (Optional)

    The “Supplementary materials” section should be a short description of the supplementary materials. The detailed information can be formatted in one or more individual supplementary files. These materials are relevant to the manuscript but remain non-essential to readers' understanding of the manuscript's main content. All supplementary information should be submitted as a separate file in Step 4 during submission. Please ensure the names of such files contain 'suppl. info'. Videos may be included in this section.

    Author contributions

    For research articles, if there is only one author for a paper, you do not need to add author contributions. If there is more than one author, authors are asked to prepare a short, one paragraph statement giving the individual contribution of each co‐author to the reported research and the writing of the paper. For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions must be provided.

    The following statements are recommended to be used “Conceptualization, XX and YY; methodology, XX; software, XX; validation, XX, YY and ZZ; formal analysis, XX; investigation, XX; resources, XX; data curation, XX; writing—original draft preparation, XX; writing—review and editing, XX; visualization, XX; supervision, XX; project administration, XX; funding acquisition, YY. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.”


    Financial support in preparation of the publication is included at the end of the article, which is NOT mandatory. If authors provided, they should be in the same style as the template,


    Please add: “This research received no external funding” or “This research was funded by [name of funder] grant number [xxx]” and “The APC was funded by [XXX]”. Check carefully that the details given are accurate and use the standard spelling of funding agency names at, any errors may affect your future funding.

    Acknowledgments (Optional)

    Acknowledgments of the publication are included at the end of the article, and are NOT mandatory. Keep them as the authors have provided.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are required to declare all activities that have the potential to be deemed as a source of competing interest in relations to their submitted manuscript. Examples of such activities could include personal or work-related relationships, events, etc. Authors who have nothing to declare are encouraged to add "No conflict of interest was reported by all authors" in this section. Please comply with the Conflict of Interest policy.


    Authors should include all figures into the manuscript and submit it as one file in the OJS system. Figures include photographs, scanned images, graphs, charts and schematic diagrams. Figures submitted should avoid unnecessary decorative effects (e.g. 3D graphs) as well as be minimally processed (e.g. changes in brightness and contrast applied uniformly for the entire figure). Please remember to label all figures (e.g. axis.) and number them (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2.) in boldface. The caption should describe the entire figure without citing specific panels, followed by a legend defined as description of each panel.

    The preferred file formats for any separately submitted figure(s) are PNG or JPEG. All figures should be legible in print form and of optimal resolution. Although there are no file size limitation imposed, authors are highly encouraged to compress their figures to an ideal size without unduly affecting legibility and resolution of figures. This will also speed up the process of uploading in the submission system if necessary.

    In the main text, all figures should be cited in the following formats:

    Figure 1

    Figures 3 and 4

    Figures 1, 3 and 4

    Figures 1–3

    Figure 1a,b

    Figure 1a–c

    Figure 9a or Figure 9c

    Figure 9a or Figure 10c

    Figure 2(a1)

    Figure 2(a1,b2)

    Figure 1 Left or Figure 1 Right (not recommended)

    If “respectively” is after the citations of figures or tables, like “Figures 2a, 3a, 4a and 2b, 3b, 4b, respectively”, just keep them as in their provided form.

    The figure or table is usually put after its first appearance, but it can be adjusted depending on the blank space.

    The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher reserve the right to request from author(s) the high-resolution files and unprocessed data and metadata files should the need arise at any point after manuscript submission for reasons such as production, evaluation or other purposes. The file name should allow for ease in identifying the associated manuscript submitted.

    Tables, Lists and Equations

    Tables should be prepared in MS Word/Excel table format, not inserted as images. Very large tables can be placed in the Supplementary Material. The tables should include a title at the top. Titles and footnotes/legends should be concise. These must be submitted together with the manuscript. Likewise, lists and equations should be properly aligned and its meaning clear to readers.

    In the main text, tables should be cited in the following formats:

    Table 1

    Tables 3 and 4

    Tables 1, 3, and 4

    Tables 1–3

    If there are subtables (a) or (b), please combine them into one table, and use the format of Table 1a,b in the main text.


    In-text Citations

    List and number all bibliographical references that make an important contribution to the paper. When referenced in the text, enclose the citation number in square brackets, for example: 

    • Negotiation research spans many disciplines[3,4].
    • This effect has been widely studied[1-5,7].


    This section is compulsory and should be placed at the end of all manuscripts. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list. The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should be excluded from this section.


    Journal article in English

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of the article. Journal Name Year; Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)
    • e.g., Petitti DB, Crooks VC, Buckwalter JG, et al. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Archives of Neurology 2005; 62(1): 112–116. doi: 10.1001/archneur.62.1.112

    Journal article in a language other than English

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. English title of the article (language). Journal Name Year; Volume(Issue) (if available): Firstpage–Lastpage. doi (if available)

    • e.g., Massone L, Borghi S, Pestarino A. Purpuric palmarsites of dermatitis herpetiformis (French). Annual Dermatol Venerol 1987; 114(12): 1545–1547.


    Book without editors

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Chapter (optional). In: Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. pp. Page range (optional).

    • e.g., Cerdá C. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non‐communicable Diseases—Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics. Springer International Publishing; 2014.
    • e.g., Desiraju GR, Steiner T. The Weak Hydrogen Bond in Structural Chemistry and Biology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press; 1999. pp. 10–25.

    Book with editors

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of the contribution. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors). Title of the Book, Edition (if available). Publisher; Year. Volume (optional), pp. Page range (optional).

    • e.g., Almlof J, Gropen O. Relativistic effects in chemistry. In: Lipkowitz KB, Boyd DB (editors). Reviews in Computational Chemistry. VCH; 1996. Volume 8. pp. 206–210.

    In a translated book, put the translators’ names after the editors’ names: “Translator 1 FM (translator)” or “Translator 1 FM, Translator 2 FM (translators)”. For example:

    • e.g., Tessier J. Structure, synthesis and physical—Chemical properties of deltamethrin. In: Tessier J (editor). Walden BVdG (translator). Deltamethrin Monograph. Roussel‐Uclaf; 1982.

    If the editors and translators are the same, the format should be as in the following example:

    • e.g., Gadamer HG. Hermeneutics and logocentrism. In: Michelfelder DP, Palmer RE (editors and translators). Dialogue and Deconstruction: The Gadamer‐Derrida Debate. State University of New York Press; 1989. pp. 114–125.


    Full citations of published abstracts (proceedings)

    In most cases, the proceedings will be simply called “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” without a book title. In this case, please only add the conference name in the proceedings’ title and keep that in regular face (i.e., do no italicize):

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM, et al. Title of presentation. In: Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    • e.g., Chum O, Philbin J, Zisserman A. Near duplicate image detection: Min‐Hash and tf‐idf weighting. In: Proceedings of the 19th British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008); 1–4 September 2008; Leeds, UK. pp. 812–815.

    If the proceedings are published as a book with a separate title (i.e., not “Proceedings of the Name of the Conference (full name)” as the title), the Book Titles is in italic:

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation. In: Editor 1 FM, Editor 2 FM (editors) (if available). Title of Collected Work, Proceedings of the Name of the Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available). Publisher; Year. Abstract Number (optional), Pagination (optional).

    • e.g., Beebe N. Digital forensic research: The good, the bad and the unaddressed. In: Advances in Digital Forensics V, Proceedings of the Fifth IFIP WG 11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics; 26–28 January 2009; Orlando, FL, USA. Springer; 2009. Volume V, pp. 17–36.

    Oral presentations without published material

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM, Author 3 FM. Title of presentation (if any). Presented at the Name of Conference; Date of Conference (Day Month Year) (if available); Location of Conference (City, Country) (if available); Paper number (if available).
    • e.g., Zhang Z, Chen H, Zhong J, et al. ZnO nanotip‐based QCM biosensors. Presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and Exposition; 4–7 June 2006; Miami, FL, USA.


    Author FM. Title of Thesis [Level of thesis]. Degree‐Granting University; Year.

    • e.g., Mäckel H. Capturing the Spectra of Silicon Solar Cells [PhD thesis]. The Australian National University; 2004.

    The level of thesis can be called “XX thesis” or “XX dissertation”. Thesis types include but are not limited to the following:

        PhD thesis

        Master’s thesis

        Bachelor’s thesis

        Licentiate thesis

        Diploma thesis


    Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, et al. Title of article. Title of Periodical, Complete Date, Pagination (if available).

    • e.g.: Squires S. Falling short on nutrients. The Washington Post, 4 October 2005, p. H1.


    Patent Owner 1, Patent Owner 2, Patent Owner 3. Title of Patent. Patent Number, Date (Day Month Year, the Application granted date).

    • e.g., Sheem SK. Low‐Cost Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor. U.S. Patent 6,738,537, 18 May 2004.
    • e.g., Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, et al. Friction Stir Butt Welding. International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92/02203; GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8; U.S. Patent Application No. 5,460,317, 6 December 1991.

    Unpublished work

    Author 1 FM, Author 2 FM. Title of unpublished work. Journal Title Year (if available); Phrase Indicating Stage of Publication (submitted, in press, etc.).

    • e.g., Guo L, Zhu Y, Gunawan O, et al. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film solar cell with 7% power conversion efficiency. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications 2014; in press.
    • e.g., Nokinara K. Title of unpublished work. Duke University, Durham, UK; 2003; Unpublished work.

    Online resources

    Author (if available). Title of content (if available). Available online: http://URL (accessed on Day Month Year). In case of a homepage, the access date is not required.

    • e.g., Weier MH. In a big win for HP, Wal‐Mart chooses Neoview Data Warehouse. Available online: (accessed on 2 June 2012).

    References tips:

    1. References are limited to first three authors.

    2. References with more than three authors: the first three authors should be listed; all the subsequent authors should be replaced by single “et al.” As et al. means “and others”, list all names if there are only 4 authors.

    3. Journal name in each reference should not be abbreviated.

    4. “(a) ref. 1; (b) ref. 2” in one reference is not allowed, and it should be divided into two references.

    5. Pagination: use the abbreviations “p.” and “pp.” to indicate single and multiple pages, respectively, e.g.,

        p. 1

        pp. 1–20

        pp. 1, 15, 20

        240p (to cite the whole book)

    6. The article number can replace the page number.

    7. If the author names appear in non-roman alphabets, Do Retain it as in original form.

    e.g. Å not as A

    ĝ not as g

    Ø not as O

    ñ not as n

    Ç not as C

    ü not as u

    Ł not as L

    æ not as ae

    à not as a

    oe not as oe

    8. Capitalize first letter after colon/em dash.

    9. If you are not sure what type it is, just try to put it as an online resource—find the document or website’s title, and its URL address. The accessed date should be provided later by the authors (ask the authors to provide this).

    Appendix Optional

    Appendixes provide information supplementary to an article and are included at the end of the main document. If there is only one, it is designated “Appendix A”; if there is more than one, they are designated “Appendix A”, “Appendix B”, etc.

    Appendixes should be cited in the main text. An appendix’s Figures/Tables/Equations can be cited in the main text, but are not mandatory. The content of an appendix is contained within the sections subordinate to the major heading, “Appendix.” The language and styling rules for the text also apply to appendixes. The form of numbering of tables, figures, and equations in an appendix should be started with prefix A, (i.e., Figure A1, Figure A2, Table A1, etc.).

  • The Author(s) warrant that permission to publish the article has not been previously assigned elsewhere.

    Author(s) shall retain the copyright of their work and grant the Journal/Publisher right for the first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under:

     Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license allows for the copying, distribution and transmission of the work, provided the correct attribution of the original creator is stated. 

  • The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.

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For high-quality articles graded by our editorial board members and authors from low-income countries with difficulty to pay the APCs, FSP will access in a case-by-case basis and may approve certain discount to ensure the publication. FSP reserves the rights to approve or decline any such request. Please contact: Publishing fees or waiver status should not influence editorial decision making.


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